【政策法规】国际民用航空公约

发布时间: 2017-05-17
浏览次数: 10

【政策法规】国际民用航空公约

(1944年12月7日 芝加哥)

序 言

鉴于国际民用航空的未来发展对建立和保持世界各国之间和人民之间的友谊和了解大有帮助,而其滥用足以威胁普遍安全;又鉴于有需要避免各国之间和人民之间的磨擦并促进其合作,世界和平有赖于此;因此,下列各签署国政府议定了若干原则和办法,使国际民用航空得按照安全和有秩序的方式发展,并使国际航空运输业务得建立在机会均等的基础上,健康地和经济地经营;为此目的缔结本公约。


第一部分 空中航行

第一章 公约的一般原则和适用

第一条 主权 

缔约各国承认每一国家对其领土之上的空气空间享有完全的和排他的主权。


第二条 领土 

本公约所指一国的领土,应认为是在该国主权、宗主权、保护或委任统治下的陆地区域及与其邻接的领水。


第三条 民用航空器和国家航空器 

一、本公约仅适用于民用航空器,不适用于国家航空器。 

二、用于军事、海关和警察部门的航空器,应认为是国家航空器。 

三、一缔约国的国家航空器,未经特别协定或其他方式的许可并遵照其中的规定,不得在另一缔约国领土上空飞行或在此领土上降 。

四、缔约各国承允在发布关于其国家航空器的规章时,对民用航空器的航行安全予以应有的注意。


第三条 分条

注: 一九八四年五月十日,大会决定修正芝加哥公约,增加第三条分条。该条尚未生效。

一、缔约各国承认,每一国家必须避免对飞行中的民用航空器使用武器,如拦截,必须不危及航空器内人员的生命和航空器的安全。此一规定不应被解释为在任何方面修改了联合国宪章所规定的各国的权利和义务。 


二、缔约各国承认,每一国家在行使其主权时,对未经允许而飞越其领土的民用航空器,或者有合理的根据认为该航空器被用于与本公约宗旨不相符的目的,有权要求该航空器在指定的机场降落;该国也可以给该航空器任何其他指令,以终止此类侵犯。为此目的,缔约各国可采取符合国际法的有关规则,包括本公约的有关规定,特别是本条第一款规定的任何适当手段。每一缔约国同意公布其关于拦截民用航空器的现行规定。 


三、任何民用航空器必须遵守根据本条第二款发出的命令。为此目的,每一缔约国应在本国法律或规章中作出一切必要的规定,以便在该国登记的、或者在该国有主营业所或永久居所的经营人所使用的任何航空器必须遵守上述命令。每一缔约国应使任何违反此类现行法律或规章的行为受到严厉惩罚,并根据本国法律将这一案件提交其主管当局。 


四、每一缔约国应采取适当措施,禁止将在该国登记的、或者在该国有主营业所或永久居所的经营人所使用的任何民用航空器肆意用于与本公约宗旨不相符的目的。这一规定不应影响本条第一款或者与本条第二款和第三款相抵触。


第四条 民用航空的滥用 

缔约各国同意不将民用航空用于和本公约的宗旨不相符的任何目的。


第二章 在缔约国领土上空飞行

第五条 不定期飞行的权利 

缔约各国同意其他缔约国的一切不从事定期国际航班飞行的航空器,在遵守本公约规定的条件,不需要事先获准,有权飞入或飞经其领土而不降停,或作非商业性降停,但飞经国有权令其降落。为了飞行安全,当航空器所欲飞经的地区不得进入或缺乏适当航行设施时,缔约各国保留令其遵循规定航路或获得特准后方许飞行的权利。 


此项航空器如为取酬或出租而载运乘客、货物、邮件但非从事定期国际航班飞行,在遵守第七条规定的情况下,亦有上下乘客、货物或邮件的特权,但上下的地点所在国家有权规定其认为需要的规章、条件或限制。


第六条 定期航班除非经一 

缔约国特准或其他许可并遵照此项特准或许可的条件,任何定期国际航班不得在该国领土上空飞行或进入该国领土。


第七条 国内运营权 

缔约各国有权拒绝准许其他缔约国的航空器为取酬或出租在其领土内载运乘客、邮件和货物前往其领土内另一地点。缔约各国承允不缔结任何协议在排他的基础上特准任何其他国家的空运企业享有任何此项特权,也不向任何其他国家取得任何此项排他的特权。


第八条 无人驾驶航空器 

任何无人驾驶而能飞行的航空器,未经一缔约国特许并遵照此项特许的条件,不得无人驾驶而在该国领土上空飞行。缔约各国承允对此项无人驾驶的航空器在向民用航空器开放的地区内的飞行加以管制,以免危及民用航空器。


第九条 禁区 

一、缔约各国由于军事需要或公共安全的理由,可以一律限制或禁止其他国家的航空器在其领土内的某些地区上空飞行,但对该领土所属国从事定期国际航班飞行的航空器和其他缔约国从事同样飞行的航空器,在这一点上不得有所区别。此种禁区的范围和位置应当合理,以免空中航行受到不必要的阻碍。一缔约国领土内此种禁区的说明及其随后的任何变更,应尽速通知其他各缔约国及国际民用航空组织。 


二、在非常情况下,或在紧急时期内,或为了公共安全,缔约各国也保留暂时限制或禁止航空器在其全部或部分领土上空飞行的权利并立即生效,但此种限制或禁止应不分国籍适用于所有其他国家的航空器。 


三、缔约各国可以依照其制定的规章,令进入上述第一款或第二款所指地区的任何航空器尽速在其领土内一指定的机场降落。


第十条 在设关机场降落 

除按照本公约的条款或经特许,航空器可以飞经一缔约国领土而不降停外,每一航空器进入一缔约领土,如该国规章有规定时,应在该国指定的机场降停,以便进行海关和其他检查。当离开一缔约国领土时,此种航空器应从同样指定的设关机场离去。所有指定的设关机场的详细情形,应由该国公布,并送交根据本公约第二部分设立的国际民用航空组织,以便通知所有其他缔约国。


第十一条 空中规章的适用 

在遵守本公约各规定的条件下,一缔约国关于从事国际航行的航空器进入或离开其领土或关于此种航空器在其领土内操作或航行的法律和规章,应不分国籍,适用于所有缔约国的航空器,此种航空器在进入或离开该国领土或在其领土内时,都应该遵守此项法律和规章。


第十二条 空中规则 

缔约各国承允采取措施以保证在其领土上空飞行或在其领土内运转的每一航空器及每一具有其国籍标志的航空器,不论在何地,应遵守当地关于航空器飞行和运转的现行规则和规章。缔约各国承允使这方面的本国规章,在最大可能范围内,与根据本公约随时制定的规章相一致。在公海上空,有效的规则应为根据本公约制定的规则。缔约各国承允对违反适用规章的一切人员起诉。


第十三条 入境及放行规章 

一缔约国关于航空器的乘客、机组或货物进入或离开其领土的法律和规章,如关于入境、放行、移民、护照、海关及检疫的规章,应由此种乘客、机组或货物在进入、离开或在该国领土内时遵照执行或由其代表遵照执行。


第十四条 防止疾病传播 

缔约各国同意采取有效措施防止经由空中航行传播霍乱、班疹伤寒(流行性)、天花、黄热病、鼠疫、以及缔约各国随时确定的其他传染病。为此,缔约各国将与负责关于航空器卫生措施的国际规章的机构保持密切的磋商。此种磋商应不妨碍缔约各国所参加的有关此事的任何现行国际公约的适用。


第十五条 机场费用和类似费用 

一缔约国对其本国航空器开放的公用机场,在遵守第六十八条规定的情况下,应按统一条件对所有其他缔约国的航空器开放。为航行安全和便利而提供公用的一切航行设施,包括无线电和气象服务,由缔约各国的航空器使用时,应适用同样的统一条件。 


一缔约国对任何其他缔约国的航空器使用此种机场及航行设施可以征收或准许征收的任何费用: 

一、对不从事定期国际航班飞行的航空器,应不高于从事同样飞行的本国同级航空器所缴纳的费用; 

二、对从事定期国际航班飞行的航空器,应不高于从事同样国际航班飞行的本国航空器所缴纳的费用。 


所有此类费用应予公布,并通知国际民用航空组织,但如一有关缔约国提出意见,此项使用机场及其他设施的收费率应由理事会审查。理事会应就此提出报告和建议,供有关的一国或几国考虑。任何缔约对另一缔约国的任何航空器或航空器上所载人员或财物不得仅因给予通过或进入或离去其领土的权利而征收任何规费、捐税或其他费用。


第十六条 对航空器的检查缔约各国有关当局有权对其他缔约国的航空器在降停或飞离时进行检查,并查验本公约规定的证件和其他文件,但应避免不合理的延误。


第三章 航空器的国籍

第十七条 航空器的国籍 

航空器具有其登记的国家的国籍。


第十八条 双重登记 

航空器在一个以上国家登记不得认为有效,但其登记可以由一国转移至另一国。


第十九条 管理登记的国家法律航空器在任何缔约国登记或转移登记,应按该国的法律和规章办理。


第二十条 标志的展示 

从事国际航行的每一航空器应载有适当的国籍标志和登记标志。


第二十一条

登记的报告缔约各国承允,如经要求,应将关于在该国登记的某一个航空器的登记及所有权情况提供给任何另一缔约国或国际民用航空组织。此外,缔约各国应按照国际民用航空组织制定的规章,向该组织报告有关在该国登记的经常从事国际航行的航空器所有权和控制权的可提供的有关资料。如经要求,国际民用航空组织应将所得到的资料提供给其他缔约国。


第四章 便利空中航行的措施

第二十二条 简化手续 

缔约各国同意采取一切可行的措施,通过发布特别规章或其他方法,以便利和加速航空器在缔约各国领土间的航行,特别是在执行关于移民、检疫、海关、放行等法律时,防止对航空器、机组、乘客和货物造成不必要的延误。


第二十三条 海关和移民程序 

缔约各国承允在其认为可行的情况下,按照依本公约随时制定或建议的措施,制定有关国际航行的海关和移民程序。本公约的任何规定不得被解释为妨碍设置豁免关税的机场。


第二十四条 关税 

一、航空器飞抵、飞离或飞越另一缔约国领土时,在遵守该国海关规章的条件下,应准予暂时免纳关税。一缔约国的航空器在到达另一缔约国领土时所载的燃料、润滑油、零备件、正常设备及机上供应品,在航空器离开该国领土时,如仍留置航空器上,应免纳关税、检验费或类似的国家或地方税款和费用,此种豁免不适用于卸下的任何数量或物品,但按照该国海关规章允许的不在此例,此种规章可以要求上述物品应受海关监督。 


二、运入一缔约国领土的零备件和设备,供装配另一缔约国的从事国际航行的航空器或在该航空器上使用,应准予免纳关税,但须遵守有关国家的规章,此种规章可以规定上述物品应受海关的监督和管制。


第二十五条 航空器遇险 

缔约各国承允对在其领土内遇险的航空器,在其认为可行的情况下,采取援助措施,并在本国当局管制下准许该航空器所有人或该航空器登记国的当局采取情况所需的援助措施。缔约各国搜寻失踪的航空器时,应在按照本公约随时建议的各种协同措施方面进行合作。


第二十六条 事故调查 

一缔约国的航空器如在另一缔约国的领土内发生事故,致有死亡或严重伤害或表明航空器或航行设施有重大技术缺陷时,事故所在地国家应在该国法律许可的范围内,依照国际民用航空组织建议的程序,着手调查事故情形。航空器登记国应有机会指派观察员在调查时到场,而主持调查的国家,应将关于此事的报告及调查结果,通知航空登记国。


第二十七条 不因专利权的主张而扣押航空器 

一、一缔约国从事国际航行的航空器,被准许进入或通过另一缔约国领土时,不论降停与否,另一缔约国不得以该国名义或以该国任何人的名义,其于航空器的构造、机构、零件、附件或操作有侵犯航空器进入国依法发给或登记的任何专利权、设计或模型的情形,而扣押或扣留该航空器,或对该航空器的所有人或经营人提出任何权利主张,或进行任何其他干涉。缔约各国并同意在任何情况下,航空器所进入的国家对航空器免予扣押或扣留时,均不要求缴付保证金。 


二、本条第一款的规定,也适用于一缔约国在另一缔约国领土内航空器备用零件和备用设备的存储,以及使用并装置此项零件和设备以修理航空器的权利,但此项存储的任何专利零件或设备,不得在航空器进入国国内出售或转让,也不得作为商品输出该国。 


三、本条的利益只适用于本公约的参加国并且是:(一)国际保护工业产权公约及其任何修正案的参加国;或(二)已经颁布专利法,对本公约其他参加国国民的发明予以承认并给予适当保护的国家。


第二十八条 航行设施和标准制度 

缔约各国承允在它认为可行的情况下: 

一、根据依本公约随时建议或制定的标准和措施,在其领土内提供机场、无线电服务、气象服务及其他航行设施,以便利国际空中航行。 


二、采取和实施根据本公约随时建议或制定的有关通信程序、简码、标志、信号、灯光及其他操作规程和规则的适当的标准制度。 


三、在国际措施方面进行合作,以便航空地图和图表能按照本公约随时建议或制定的标准出版。


第五章 航空器应具备的条件

第二十九条 航空器应备文件 

缔约国的每一航空器在从事国际航行时,应按照本公约规定的条件携带下列文件: 

一、航空器登记证; 

二、航空器适航证; 

三、每一机组成员的适当的执照; 

四、航空器航行记录簿; 

五、航空器无线电台许可证,如该航空器装有无线电设备; 

六、列有乘客姓名及其登机地与目的地的清单,如该航空器载有乘客; 

七、货物舱单及详细的申报单,如该航空器载有货物。


第三十条 航空器无线电设备 

一、各缔约国航空器在其他缔约国领土内或在其领土上空时,只有在具备该航空器登记国主管当局发给的设置及使用无线电发射设备的许可证时,才可以携带此项设备。在该航空器飞经的缔约国领土内使用无线电发射设备,应遵守该国制定的规章。 


二、无线电发射设备只准许飞行组成员中持有航空器登记国主管当局为此发给的专门执照的人员使用。


第三十一条 适航证 

凡从事国际航行的每一航空器,应备有该航空器登记国发给或核准的适航证。


第三十二条 人员执照 

一、从事国际航行的每一航空器驾驶员及飞行机组其他成员,应备有该航空器登记国发给或核准的合格证书和执照。 


二、就在本国领土上空飞行而言,缔约各国对其任何国民持有的由另一缔约国发给的合格证书和执照,保留拒绝承认的权利。


第三十三条 证书及执照的承认 

登记航空器的缔约国发给或核准的适航证和合格证书及执照,其他缔约国应承认其有效。但发给或核准此项证书或执照的要求,须等于或高于根据本公约随时制定的最低标准。


第三十四条 航行记录簿 

从事国际航行的每一航空器,应保持一份航行记录薄,以根据本公约随时规定的格式记载航空器、机组及每次航行的详情。


第三十五条 货物限制 

一、从事国际航行的航空器,非经一国许可,在该国领土内或在该国领土上空时不得载运军火或作战物资,至于本条所指军火或作战物资的含意,各国应以规章自行确定,但为求得统一起见,应适当考虑国际民用航空组织随时所作的建议。

 

二、缔约各国为了公共秩序和安全,除第一款所列物品外,保留管制或禁止在其领土内或领土上空载运其他物品的权利。但在这方面,对从事国际航行的本国航空器和从事同样航行的其他国家的航空器,不得有所区别,也不得对在航空器上为航空器操作或航行所必要的或为机组成员或乘客的安全而必须携带和使用的器械加任何限制。


第三十六条 照相机 

缔约各国可以禁止或管制在其领土上空的航空器内使用照相机。


第六章 国际标准及其建议措施

第三十七条 国际标准及程序的采用 

缔约各国承允在关于航空器、人员、航路及各种辅助服务的规章、标准、程序及工作组织方面进行合作,凡采用统一办法而能便利、改进空中航行的事项,尽力求得可行的最高程度的一致。 


为此,国际民用航空组织应根据需要就以下项目随时制定并修改国际标准及建议措施和程序: 

一、通信系统和助航设备,包括地面标志; 

二、机场和降落地区的特征; 

三、空中规则和空中交通管制办法; 

四、飞行和机务人员证件的颁发; 

五、航空器的适航性; 

六、航空器的登记和识别; 

七、气象资料的收集和交换; 

八、航行记录薄; 

九、航空地图及图表; 

十、海关和移民手续; 

十一、航空器遇险和事故调查;以及随时认为适当的有关空中航行安全、正常性及效率的其他事项。


第三十八条 背离国际标准和程序 

任何国家如认为对任何上述国际标准和程序,不能在一切方面遵行,或在任何国际标准和程序修改后,不能使其本国的规章和措施完全符合此项国际标准和程序,或该国认为有必要采用在某方面不同于国际标准所规定的规章和措施时,应立即将其本国的措施和国际标准所规定的措施之间的差别,通知国际民用航空组织。任何国家如在国际标准修改以后,对其本国规章或措施不作相应修改,应于国际标准修正案通过后六十天内通知理事会,或表明它拟采取的行动,在上述情况下,理事会应立即将国际标准和该国措施间在一项或几项上存在差别通知所有其他各国。


第三十九条 证书及执照签注 

一、任何航空器和航空器的部件,如有适航或性能方面的国际标准,而在发给证书时与此种标准在某个方面有所不符,应在其适航证上签注或加一附件,列举其不符各点的详情。 


二、任何持有执照的人员如不完全符合所持执照或证书等级的国际标准所规定的条件,应在其执照上签注或加一附件,列举其不符此项条件的详情。


第四十条 签注证书和执照的效力 

备有此种经签注的证书或执照的航空器或人员,除非经航空器所进入的领土所属国准许,不得参加国际航行。任何此项航空器或任何此项有证书的航空器部件,如在其原发证国以外的其他国家登记或使用,应由此项航空器或航空器部件所输入的国家自行决定能否予以登记或使用。


第四十一条 现行适航标准的承认 

对于航空器或航空器设备,如其原型是在其国际适航标准采用之日起三年以内送交国家有关机关申请发给证书的,不适用本章的规定。


第四十二条 合格人员现行标准的承认 

对于人员,如其执照最初是在此项人员资格的国际标准通过之日起一年以内发给的,不适用本章的规定;但对于从此项国际标准通过之日起,其执照继续有效五年的人员,本章的规定都应适用。


第二部分 国际民用航空组织


第七章 组织

第四十三条 名称和组成 

根据本公约成立一个定名为“国际民用航空组织”的组织。该组织由大会、理事会和其他必要的各国机构组成。


第四十四条 目的国际民用航空组织的宗旨和目的在于发展国际航行的原则和技术,并促进国际航空运输的规划和发展,以:  

一、确保全世界国际民用航空安全地和有秩序地发展; 

二、鼓励为和平用途的航空器的设计和操作艺术; 

三、鼓励发展国际民用航空应用的航路、机场和航行设施; 

四、满足世界人民对安全、正常、有效和经济的航空运输的需要; 

五、防止因不合理的竞争而造成经济上的浪费; 

六、确保缔约各国的权利充分受到尊重,每一缔约国均有经营国际空运企业的公平的机会; 

七、避免缔约各国之间的差别待遇; 

八、促进国际航行的飞行安全; 

九、普遍促进国际民用航空在各方面的发展。


第四十五条 永久地址 

本组织的永久地址应由1944年12月7日在芝加哥签订的国际民用航空临时协定所设立的临时国际民用航空组织临时大会最后一次会议确定。本组织的地址经理事会决议可以暂迁他处。


第四十六条 大会第一届会议 

大会第一届会议应由上述临时组织的临时理事会在本公约生效后立即召集。会议的时间和地点由临时理事会决定。


第四十七条 法律能力 

本组织在缔约各国领土内应享有为履行其职能所必须的法律能力。凡与有关国家的宪法和法律不相抵触时,都应承认其完全的法人资格。


第八章 大会

第四十八条 大会会议和表决 

一、大会由理事会在适当的时间和地点每年召开一次。经理事会召集或经任何十个缔约国向秘书长提出要求,可以随时举行大会特别会议。 

二、所有缔约国在大会会议上都有同等的代表权,每一缔约国应有一票的表决权,缔约各国代表可由技术顾问协助,顾问可以参加会议,但无表决权。 

三、大会会议必须有过半数的缔约国构成法定人数。除本公约另有规定外,大会决议应由所投票数的过半数票通过。


第四十九条 大会的权力和职责 

大会的权力和职责为:  

一、在每次会议上选举大会主席和其他职员; 

二、按照第九章的规定,选举参加理事会的缔约国; 

三、审查理事会各项报告,对报告采取适当行动,并就理事会向大会提出的任何事项作出决定; 

四、决定大会本身的议事规则,并设置其认为必要的或适宜的各种附属委员会; 

五、按照第十二章的规定,表决本组织的年度预算,并表决本组织的财务安排; 

六、审查本组织的支出费用,并批准本组织的账目; 

七、根据自己的决定,将其职权范围内的任何事项交给理事会、附属委员会或任何其他机构处理;    

八、赋予理事会为行使本组织职责所必需的或适宜的权力和职权,并随时撤销或变更所赋予的职权; 

九、执行第十三章的各项有关规定; 

十、审议有关变更或修正本公约条款的提案。如大会通过此项提案,则按照第二十一章的规定,将此项提案向各缔约国建议; 

十一、处理在本组织职权范围内未经明确指定归理事会处理的任何事项。


第九章 理事会

第五十条 理事会的组成和选举 

一、理事会是向大会负责的常设机构,由大会选出的二十一个缔约国组成。大会第一次会议应进行此项选举,此后每三年选举一次;当选的理事任职至下届选举时为止。


二、大会选举理事时,应给予下列国家以适当代表: 

(一)在航空运输方面占主要地位的各国;

(二)未包括在其他项下的对提供国际民用航空航行设施作最大贡献的各国;及

(三)未包括在其他项下的其当选可保证世界各主要地理区域的理事会中均有代表的各国。理事会中一有出缺,应由大会尽速补充;如此当选理事的缔约国,其任期应为其前任所未届满的任期。 


三、缔约国担任理事的代表不得同时参与国际航空的经营或与此项航班有财务上的利害关系。


第五十一条 理事会主席 

理事会应选举主席一人,任期三年,连选可以连任。理事会主席无表决权。理事会应从其理事中选举副主席一人或数人。副主席代理主席时,仍保留其表决权。主席不一定由理事会成员国代表中选出,但如有一名代表当选,即认为其理事席位出缺,应由其代表的国家另派代表。主席的职责如下:    

一、召集理事会、航空运输委员会及航行委员会的会议; 

二、充任理事会的代表; 

三、以理事会的名义执行理事会委派给他的任务。


第五十二条 理事会的表决 

理事会的决议需经过半数理事同意。理事会对任一特定事项可以授权由其理事组成的一委员会处理。对理事会任何委员会的决议,有关缔约国可以向理事会申诉。


第五十三条 无表决权参加会议 

任何缔约国在理事会及其委员会和专门委员会审议特别影响该国利益的任何问题时,可以参加会议,但无表决权。理事会成员国在理事会审议一项争端时,如其本身为争端的一方,则不得参加表决。


第五十四条 理事会必须履行的职能 

理事会应: 

一、向大会提出年度报告; 

二、执行大会的指示和履行本公约为其规定的职责和义务; 

三、决定其组织和议事规则; 

四、在理事会各成员国代表中选择任命一对理事会负责的航空运输委员会,并规定其职责; 

五、按照第十章的规定设立一航行委员会; 

六、按照第十二章和第十五章的规定管理本组织的财务; 

七、决定理事会主席的酬金; 

八、按照第十一章的规定,任命一主要行政官员,称为秘书长,并规定对其他必要工作人员的任用办法; 

九、征求、搜集、审查并出版关于空中航行的发展和国际航班经营的资料,包括经营的成本,及以公共资金给予空运企业补贴等详细情形的资料; 

十、向缔约各国报告关于违反本公约及不执行理事会建议或决定的任何情况; 

十一、向大会报告关于一缔约国违反本公约而经通知后在一合理的期限内仍未采取适当行动的任何情况; 

十二、按照本公约第六章的规定,通过国际标准及建议措施;并为便利起见,将些种标准和措施称为本公约的附件,并将已采取的行动通知所有缔约国; 

十三、审议航行委员会有关修改附件的建议,并按照第二十章的规定采取行动; 

十四、审议任何缔约国向理事会提出的关于本公约的任何事项。


第五十五条 理事会可以行使的职能 


理事会可以: 

一、在适当的情况下并根据经验认为需要的时候,在地区或其他基础上,设立附属的航空运输委员会,并划分国家或空运企业的组别,以便理事会与其一起或通过其促进实现本公约的宗旨; 


二、委托航行委员会行使本公约规定以外的职责,并随时撤销或变更此种职责; 


三、对具有国际意义的航空运输和空中航行的一切方面进行研究,将研究结果通知各缔约国,并促进缔约国之间交换有关航空运输和空中航行的资料; 


四、研究有关国际航空运输的组织和经营的任何问题,包括干线上国际航班的国际所有和国际经营的问题,并将有关计划提交大会; 


五、根据任何一个缔约国的要求,调查对国际空中航行的发展可能出现本可避免的障碍的任何情况,并在调查后发布其认为适宜的报告。


第十章 航行委员会

第五十六条 委员会的提名和任命 

航行委员会由理事会在缔约国提名的人员中任命委员十二人组成。此等人员对航空的科学知识和实践应具有合适的资格和经验。理事会应要求所有缔约国提名。航行委员会的主席由理事会任命。


第五十七条 委员会的职责 

航行委员会应: 

一、对本公约附件的修改进行审议并建议理事会予以通过; 

二、成立技术小组委员会,任何缔约国如愿意参加,都可指派代表; 

三、在向各缔约国收集和传递其认为对改进空中航行有必要和有用的一切资料方面,向理事会提供意见。


第十一章 人事

第五十八条 人员的任命 

在符合大会制订的一切规则和本公约条款的情况下,理事会确定秘书长及本组织其他人员的任命及任用终止的办法、训练、薪金、津贴及服务条件,并可雇用任一缔约国国民或使用其服务。


第五十九条 人员的国际性 

理事会主席、秘书长以及其他人员对于执行自己的职务,不得征求或接受本组织以外任何当局的指示。缔约各国承允充分尊重此等人员职务的国际性,并不谋求对其任一国民在执行此项职务时施加影响。


第六十条 人员的豁免和特权 

缔约各国承允在其宪法程序允许的范围内,对本组织理事会主席、秘书长和其他人员,给以其他国际公共组织相当人员所享受的豁免和特权。如对国际公务人员的豁免和特权达成普遍性国际协定时,则给予本组织理事会主席、秘书长及其他人员的豁免和特权,应为该项普遍性国际协定所给予的豁免和特权。


第十二章 财政

第六十一条 预算和开支分摊 

理事会应将年度预算、年度决算和全部收支的概算提交大会。大会应对预算连同其认为应作的修改进行表决,并除按第十五章规定向各国分摊其同意缴纳的款项外,应将本组织的开支按照随时确定的办法在各缔约国间分摊。


第六十二条 中止表决权 

任何缔约国如在合理期限内,不向本组织履行其财务上的义务时,大会可以中止其在大会和理事会的表决权。


第六十三条 代表团及其他代表的费用 

缔约各国应负担其出席大会的本国代表团的开支,以及由其任命在理事会工作的任何人员及其出席本组织附属的任何委员会或专门委员会指派人员或代表的报酬、旅费及其他费用。


第十三章 其他国际协议

第六十四条 有关安全的协议 

本组织对于在其权限范围之内直接影响世界安全的航空事宜,经由大会表决后,可以与世界各国为保持和平而成立的任何普遍性组织缔结适当的协议。 第六十五条 与其他国际机构订立协议 


理事会可以代表本组织同其他国际机构缔结关于合用服务和有关人事的共同安排的协议,并经大会批准后,可以缔结其他为便利本组织工作的协议。


第六十六条 关于其他协定的职能 

一、本组织并应根据1944年12月7日在芝加哥订立的国际航班过境协定和国际航空运输协定所规定的条款和条件,履行该两项协定为本组织规定的职能。 


二、凡大会和理事会成员国未接受1944年12月7日在芝加哥订立的国际航班过境协定或国际航空运输协定的,对根据此项有关协定的条款而提交大会或理事会的任何问题,没有表决权。


第三部分 国际航空运输

第十四章 资料和报告

第六十七条 向理事会送交报告 

缔约各国承允,各该国的国际空运企业按照理事会规定的要求,向理事会送交运输报告、成本统计,以及包括说明一切收入及其来源的财务报告。


第十五章 机场及其他航行设施

第六十八条 航路和机场的指定 

缔约各国在不违反本公约的规定下,可以指定任何国际航班在其领土内应遵循的航路和可以使用的机场。


第六十九条 航行设施的改进 

理事会如认为某一缔约国的机场或其他航行设施,包括无线电及气象服务,对现有的或筹划中的国际航班的安全、正常、有效和经济的经营尚不够完善时,应与直接有关的国家和影响所及的其他国家磋商,以寻求补救办法,并可对此提出建议。缔约国如不履行此项建议时,不应作违反本公约论。


第七十条 提供航行设施费用 

一缔约国在第六十九条规定所引起的情况下,可以与理事会达成协议,以实施该项建议。该国可以自愿担负任何此项协议所必需的一切费用。该国如不愿担负时,理事会可应该国的请求,同意提供全部或一部分费用。


第七十一条 理事会对设施的提供和维护 

如一缔约国请求,理事会可以同意全部或部分地提供、维护和管理在该国领土内为其他缔约国国际航班安全、正常、有效和经济的经营所需要的机场及其他航行设施,包括无线电和气象服务,并提供所需的人员。理事会可以规定使用此项设施的公平和合理的费用。


第七十二条 土地的取得或使用 

经缔约国请求由理事会全部或部分提供费用的设施,如需用土地时,该国应自行供给如愿意时可保留此项土地的所有权,或根据该国法律,按照公平合理的条件,对理事会使用此项土地给予便利。


第七十三条 开支和经费的分摊 

理事会在大会根据第十二章拨给理事会使用的经费范围内,可以从本组织的总经费中为本章的目的支付经常费用。为本章的目的所需的资金,由理事会按预先同意的比例在一合理期间内,向使用此项设施的空运企业所属的并同意承担的缔约国分摊。理事会也可以向同意承担的国家分摊任何必需的周转金。


第七十四条 技术援助和收入的利用 

理事会经一缔约国的要求为其垫款、或全部或部分地提供机场或其他设施时,经该国同意,可以在协议中规定在机场及其设施的管理和经营方面予以技术援助;并规定从经营机场及其他设施的收入中,支付机场及其他设施的业务开支、利息及分期偿还费用。


第七十五条 从理事会接收设备 

缔约国可以随时解除其按照第七十条所担负的任何义务,偿付理事会按情况认为合理的款额,以接收理事会根据第七十一条和第七十二条规定在其领土内设置的机场和其他设施。如该国认为理事会所定的数额不合理时,可以对理事会的决定向大会申诉,大会可以确认或修改理事会的决定。


第七十六条 款项的退还 

理事会根据第七十五条收回的款项及根据第七十四条所得的利息和分期偿还款项,如原款是按照第七十三条由各国垫付,应由理事会决定按照各该国原垫款的比例退还各该国。


第十六章 联营组织和合营航班

第七十七条 允许联合经营组织 

本公约不妨碍两个或两个以上缔约国组成航空运输的联营组织或国际性的经营机构,以及在任何航线或地区合营航班。但此项组织或机构的合营航班,应遵守本公约的一切规定,包括关于将协定向理事会登记的规定。理事会应决定本公约关于航空器国籍的规定以何种方式适合于国际经营机构所用的航空器。


第七十八条 理事会的职能 

理事会可以建议各有关缔约国在任何航线或任何地区建立联合组织经营航班。


第七十九条 参加经营组织 

一国可以通过其政府或由其政府指定的一家或几家空运企业,参加联营组织或合营安排。此种企业可以是国有、部分国有或私有,完全由有关国家自行决定。


第四部分 最后条款

第十七章 其他航空协定和协议

第八十条 巴黎公约和哈瓦那公约 

缔约各国承允,如该国是1919年10月13日在巴黎签订的空中航行管理公约或1928年2月20日在哈瓦那签订的商业航空公约的缔约国,则在本公约生效时,立即声明退出上述公约。在各缔约国间,本公约即代替上述巴黎公约和哈瓦那公约。


第八十一条 现行协定的登记 

本公约生效时,一缔约国和任何其他国家间,或一缔约国空运企业和任何其他国家或其他国家空运企业间的一切现行航空协定,应立即向理事会登记。


第八十二条 废除与本公约抵触的协议 

缔约各国承认本公约废除了彼此间所有与本公约条款相抵触的义务和谅解,并承允不再承担任何此类义务和达成任何此类谅解。一缔约国如在成为本组织的成员国以前,曾对某一非缔约国或某一缔约国的国民或非缔约国的国民,承担了与本公约的条款相抵触的任何义务,应立即采取步骤,解除其义务。任何缔约国的空运企业如已经承担了任何此类与本公约相抵触的义务,该空运企业所属国应以最大努力立即终止该项义务,无论如何,应在本公约生效后可以合法地采取这种行动时,终止此种义务。


第八十三条 新协议的登记 

任何缔约国在不违反前条的规定下,可以订立与本公约各规定不相抵触的协议。任何此种协议,应立即向理事会登记,理事会应尽速予以公布。


第八十三条分条① 职责和义务的转移

注①一九八○年十月六日,大会修正芝加哥公约,增加第八十三条分条。该条尚未生效。

一、尽管有第十二条、第三十条、第三十一条和第三十二条第一款的规定,当在一缔约国登记的航空器由在另一缔约国有主营业所或永久居所的经营人根据租用、包用或互换航空器的协议或者任何其他类似协议经营时,登记国可以与该另一国通过协议,将第十二条、第三十条、第三十一条和第三十二条第一款赋予登记国对该航空器的职责和义务转移至该另一国。登记国应被解除对已转移的职责和义务的责任。


二、上述协议未按照第八十三条的规定向理事会登记并公布之前,或者该协议的存在和范围未由协议当事国直接通知各有关缔约国,转移对其他缔约国不发生效力。 


三、上述第一款和第二款的规定对第七十七条所指的情况同样适用。


第十八章 争端和违约

第八十四条 争端的解决 

如两个或两个以上缔约国对本公约及其附件的解释或适用发生争议,而不能协商解决时,经任何与争议有关的一国申请,应由理事会裁决。理事会成员国如为争端的一方,在理事会审议时,不得参加表决。任何缔约国可以按照第八十五条,对理事会的裁决向争端他方同意的特设仲裁庭或向常设国际法院上诉。任何此项上诉应在接获理事会裁决通知后六十天内通知理事会。


第八十五条 仲裁程序 

对理事会的裁决上诉时,如争端任何一方的缔约国,未接受常设国际法院的规约,而争端各方的缔约国又不能在仲裁庭的选择方面达成协议,争端各方缔约国应各指定一仲裁员,再由仲裁员指定一仲裁长。如争端任何一方的缔约国从上诉之日起三个月内未能指定一仲裁员,理事会主席应代替该国从理事会所保存的合格的并可供使用的人员名单中,指定一仲裁员。如各种裁员在三十天内对仲裁长不能达成协议,理事会主席应从上述名单中指定一仲裁长。各种裁员和该仲裁长应即联合组成一仲裁庭。根据本条或前条组成的任何仲裁庭,应决定其自己的议事程序,并以多数票作出裁决。但理事会如认为有任何过分延迟的情形,可以对程序问题作出决定。


第八十六条 上诉

除非理事会另有决定,理事会对一国际空运企业的经营是否符合本公约规定的任何裁决,未经上诉撤销,应仍保持有效。关于任何其他事件。理事会的裁决一经上诉,在上诉裁决以前应暂停有效。常设国际法院和仲裁庭的裁决,应为最终的裁决并具有约束力。


第八十七条 对空运企业不遵守规定的处罚 

缔约各国承允,如理事会认为一缔约国的空运企业未遵守根据前条所作的最终裁决时,即不准该空运企业在其领土之上的空气空间飞行。


第八十八条 对缔约国不遵守规定的处罚 

大会对违反本章规定的任何缔约国,应暂停其在大会和理事会的表决权。


第十九章 战 争

第八十九条 战争和紧急状态 

如遇战争,本公约的规定不妨碍受战争影响的任一缔约国的行动自由,无论其为交战国或中立国。如遇任何缔约国宣布其处于紧急状态,并将此事通知理事会,上述原则同样适用。


第二十章 附 件

第九十条 附件的通过和修正 

一、第五十四条第十二款所述的附件,应经为此目的而召开的理事会会议三分之二的票数通过,然后由理事会将此种附件分送缔约各国。任何此种附件或任何附件的修正案,应在送交缔约各国后三个月内,或在理事会所规定的较长时期终了时生效,除非在此期间有半数以上缔约国向理事会表示反对。 


二、理事会应将任何附件或其修正案的生效,立即通知所有缔约国。


第二十一章 批准、加入、修正和退出 

第九十一条 公约的批准 

一、本公约应由各签署国批准。批准书应交存美利坚合众国政府档案处,该国政府应将交存日期通知各签署国和加入国。 


二、本公约一经二十六个国家批准或加入后,在第二十六件批准书交存以后第三十天起即在各该国间生效。以后每一国家批准本公约,在其批准书交存后第三十天起对该国生效。 


三、美利坚合众国政府应负责将本公约的生效日期通知各签署国和加入国。


第九十二条 公约的加入 

一、本公约应对联合国成员国、与联合国有联系的国家以及在此次世界战争中保持中立的国家开放加入。 


二、加入本公约应以通知书送交美利坚合众国政府,并从美利坚合众国政府收到通知书后第三十天起生效,美利坚合众国政府并应通知缔约各国。


第九十三条 准许其他国家参加 

第九十一条和第九十二条第一款规定以外的国家,在世界各国为保持和平所设立的任何普遍性国际组织的许可下,经大会五分之四的票数通过并在大会可能规定的各种条件下,准许参加本公约;但在每一情况下,应以取得在此次战争中受该请求加入的国家入侵或攻击过的国家的同意为必要条件。


第九十三条分条①

注①一九四七年五月二十七日,大会决定修正芝加哥公约,增加第九十三条分条。根据公约第九十四条第一款的规定,该修正案于一九六一年三月二十日起对批准该修正案的国家生效。


一、尽管有以上第九十一条、第九十二条和第九十三条的规定。 

(一)一国如联合国大会已建议将其政府排除出由联合国建立或与联合国有联系的国际机构,即自动丧失国际民用航空组织成员国的资格; 

(二)一国如已被开除出联合国,即自动丧失国际民用航空组织成员国的资格,除非联合国大会对其开除行动附有相反的建议。 


二、一国由于上述第一款的规定而丧失国际民用航空组织成员国的资格,经申请,由理事会多数通过,并得到联合国大会批准后,可以重新加入国际民用航空组织。 


三、本组织的成员国,如被暂停行使联合国成员国的权利和特权,根据联合国的要求,应暂停其本组织成员国的权利和特权。


第九十四条 公约的修正 

一、对本公约所建议的任何修正案,必须经大会三分之二票数通过,并在大会规定数目的缔约国批准后,对已经批准的国家开始生效。规定的国家数目应不少于缔约国总数的三分之二。 


二、如大会认为由于修正案的性质而有必要时,可以在其建议通过该修正案的决议中规定,任何国家在该修正案生效后规定的时期内未予批准,即丧失其为本组织成员国及公约参加国的资格。


第九十五条 退出公约 

一、任何缔约国在公约生效后三年,可以用通知书通知美利坚合众国政府退出本公约,美利坚合众国政府应立即通知各缔约国。 


二、退出公约从收到通知书之日起一年后生效,并仅对宣告退出的国家生效。


第二十二章 定 义

第九十六条 

就本公约而言: 

一、“航班”指以航空器从事乘客、邮件或货物的公共运输的任何定期航班。 

二、“国际航班”指经过一个以上国家领土之上的空气间的航班。 

三、“空运企业”指提供或经营国际航班的任何航空运输企业。 

四、 “非商业性降停”指任何目的不在于上下乘客、货物或邮件的降停。


公约的签署

下列全权代表经正式授权,各代表其本国政府在本公约上签署,以资证明,签署日期列于署名的一侧。 


本公约以英文于1944年12月7日签订于芝加哥。以英文、法文、西班牙文和俄文(一九七七年九月三十日,大会决定修正芝加哥公约,增加以俄文写成的作准文本。该修正案尚未生效。) 写成的各种文本具有同等效力的文本。这些文本都存放于美利坚合众国政府档案处,由该政府将经过认证的副本分送在本公约上签字的或加入本公约的各国政府。本公约应在华盛顿(哥伦比亚特区)开放签署。




Preamble
WHEREAS the future development of international civil aviation can greatly help to create and preserve friendship and understanding among the nations and peoples of the world, yet its abuse can become a threat to the general security; and
WHEREAS it is desirable to avoid friction and to promote that cooperation between nations and peoples upon which the peace of the world depends;
THEREFORE, the undersigned governments having agreed on certain principles and arrangements in order that international civil aviation may be developed in a safe and orderly manner and that international air transport services may be established on the basis of equality of opportunity and operated soundly and economically;
Have accordingly concluded this Convention to that end.
Came into force on 4 April 1947, the thirtieth day after deposit with the Government of the United States of America of the twenty-sixth instrument of ratification thereof or notification of adherence thereto, in accordance with Article 91 (b ).
Part I - Air navigation
Chapter I - General Principles and Application of the Convention
Article 1 - Sovereignty
The contracting States recognize that every State has complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above its territory.
Article 2 - Territory
For the purposes of this Convention the territory of a State shall be deemed to be the land areas and territorial waters adjacent thereto under the sovereignty, suzerainty, protection or mandate of such State.
Article 3 - Civil and state aircraft
(a) This Convention shall be applicable only to civil aircraft, and shall not be applicable to state aircraft.
(b) Aircraft used in military, customs and police services shall be deemed to be state aircraft.
(c) No state aircraft of a contracting State shall fly over the territory of another State or land thereon without authorization by special agreement or otherwise, and in accordance with the terms thereof.
(d) The contracting States undertake, when issuing regulations for their state aircraft, that they will have due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft.
Article 4 - Misuse of civil aviation
Each contracting State agrees not to use civil aviation for any purpose inconsistent with the aims of this Convention.
Chapter II - Flight over territory of Contracting States
Article 5 - Right of non-scheduled flight
Each contracting State agrees that all aircraft of the other contracting States, being aircraft not engaged in scheduled international air services shall have the right, subject to the observance of the terms of this Convention, to make flights into or in transit non-stop across its territory and to make stops for non-traffic purposes without the necessity of obtaining prior permission, and subject to the right of the State flown over to require landing. Each contracting State nevertheless reserves the right, for reasons of safety of flight, to require aircraft desiring to proceed over regions which are inaccessible or without adequate air navigation facilities to follow prescribed routes, or to obtain special permission for such flights.
Such aircraft, if engaged in the carriage of passengers, cargo, or mail for remuneration or hire on other than scheduled international air services, shall also, subject to the provisions of Article 7, have the privilege of taking on or discharging passengers, cargo, or mail, subject to the right of any State where such embarkation or discharge takes place to impose such regulations, conditions or limitations as it may consider desirable.
Article 6 - Scheduled air services
No scheduled international air service may be operated over or into the territory of a contracting State, except with the special permission or other authorization of that State, and in accordance with the terms of such permission or authorization.
Article 7 - Cabotage
Each contracting State shall have the right to refuse permission to the aircraft of other contracting States to take on in its territory passengers, mail and cargo carried for remuneration or hire and destined for another point within its territory. Each contracting State undertakes not to enter into any arrangements which specifically grant any such privilege on an exclusive basis to any other State or an airline of any other State, and not to obtain any such exclusive privilege from any other State.
Article 8 - Pilotless aircraft
No aircraft capable of being flown without a pilot shall be flown without a pilot over the territory of a contracting State without special authorization by that State and in accordance with the terms of such authorization. Each contracting State undertakes to insure that the flight of such aircraft without a pilot in regions open to civil aircraft shall be so controlled as to obviate danger to civil aircraft.
Article 9 - Prohibited areas
(a) Each contracting State may, for reasons of military necessity or public safety, restrict or prohibit uniformly the aircraft of other States from flying over certain areas of its territory, provided that no distinction in this respect is made between the aircraft of the State whose territory is involved, engaged in international scheduled airline services, and the aircraft of the other contracting States likewise engaged. Such prohibited areas shall be of reasonable extent and location so as not to interfere unnecessarily with air navigation. Descriptions of such prohibited areas in the territory of a contracting State, as well as any subsequent alterations therein, shall be communicated as soon as possible to the other contracting States and to the International Civil Aviation Organization.
(b) Each contracting State reserves also the right, in exceptional circumstances or during a period of emergency, or in the interest of public safety, and with immediate effect, temporarily to restrict or prohibit flying over the whole or any part of its territory, on condition that such restriction or prohibition shall be applicable without distinction of nationality to aircraft of all other States.
(c) Each contracting State, under such regulations as it may prescribe, may require any aircraft entering the areas contemplated in subparagraphs (a) or (b) above to effect a landing as soon as practicable thereafter at some designated airport within its territory.
Article 10 - Landing at customs airport
Except in a case where, under the terms of this Convention or a special authorization, aircraft are permitted to cross the territory of a contracting State without landing, every aircraft which enters the territory of a contracting State shall, if the regulations of that State so require, land at an airport designated by that State for the purpose of customs and other examination. On departure from the territory of a contracting State, such aircraft shall depart from a similarly designated customs airport. Particulars of all designated customs airports shall be published by the State and transmitted to the International Civil Aviation Organization established under Part 11 of this Convention for communication to all other contracting States.
Article 11 - Applicability of air regulations
Subject to the provisions of this Convention, the laws and regulations of a contracting State relating to the admission to or departure from its territory of aircraft engaged in international air navigation, or to the operation and navigation of such aircraft while within its territory, shall be applied to the aircraft of all contracting States without distinction as to nationality, and shall be complied with by such aircraft upon entering or departing from or while within the territory of that State.
Article 12 - Rules of the air
Each contracting State undertakes to adopt measures to insure that every aircraft flying over or maneuvering within its territory and that every aircraft carrying its nationality mark, wherever such aircraft may be, shall comply with the rules and regulations relating to the flight and maneuver of aircraft there in force. Each contracting State undertakes to keep its own regulations in these respects uniform, to the greatest possible extent, with those established from time to time under this Convention. Over the high seas, the rules in force shall be those established under this Convention. Each contracting State undertakes to insure the prosecution of all persons violating the regulations applicable.
Article 13 - Entry and clearance regulations
The laws and regulations of a contracting State as to the admission to or departure from its territory of passengers, crew or cargo of aircraft, such as regulations relating to entry, clearance, immigration, passports, customs, and quarantine shall be complied with by or on behalf of such passengers, crew or cargo upon entrance into or departure from, or while within the territory of that State.
Article 14 - Prevention of spread of disease
Each contracting State agrees to take effective measures to prevent the spread by means of air navigation of cholera, typhus (epidemic), smallpox, yellow fever, plague, and such other communicable diseases as the contracting States shall from time to time decide to designate, and to that end contracting States will keep in close consultation with the agencies concerned with international regulations relating to sanitary measures applicable to aircraft. Such consultation shall be without prejudice to the application of any existing international convention on this subject to which the contracting States may be parties.
Article 15 - Airport and similar charges
Every airport in a contracting State which is open to public use by its national aircraft shall likewise, subject to the provisions of Article 68, be open under uniform conditions to the aircraft of all the other contracting States. The like uniform conditions shall apply to the use, by aircraft of every contracting State, of all air navigation facilities, including radio and meteorological services, which may be provided for public use for the safety and expedition of air navigation. Any charges that may be imposed or permitted to be imposed by a contracting State for the use of such airports and air navigation facilities by the aircraft of any other contracting State shall not be higher,
(a) As to aircraft not engaged in scheduled international air services, than those that would be paid by its national aircraft of the same class engaged in similar operations, and
(b) As to aircraft engaged in scheduled international air services, than those that would be paid by its national aircraft engaged in similar international air services.
All such charges shall be published and communicated to the International Civil Aviation Organization, provided that, upon representation by an interested contracting State, the charges imposed for the use of airports and other facilities shall be subject to review by the Council, which shall report and make recommendations thereon for the consideration of the State or States concerned. No fees, dues or other charges shall be imposed by any contracting State in respect solely of the right of transit over or entry into or exit from its territory of any aircraft of a contracting State or persons or property thereon.
Article 16 - Search of aircraft
The appropriate authorities of each of the contracting States shall have the right, without unreasonable delay, to search aircraft of the other contracting States on landing or departure, and to inspect the certificates and other documents prescribed by this Convention.
Chapter III - Nationality of aircraft
Article 17 - Nationality of aircraft
Aircraft have the nationality of the State in which they are registered.
Article 18 - Dual registration
An aircraft cannot be validly registered in more than one State, but its registration may be changed from one State to another.
Article 19 - National laws governing registration
The registration or transfer of registration of aircraft in any contracting State shall be made in accordance with its laws and regulations.
Article 20 - Display of marks
Every aircraft engaged in international air navigation shall bear its appropriate nationality and registration marks.
Article 21 - Report of registrations
Each contracting State undertakes to supply to any other contracting State or to the International Civil Aviation Organization, on demand, information concerning the registration and ownership of any particular aircraft registered in that State. In addition, each contracting State shall furnish reports to the International Civil Aviation Organization, under such regulations as the latter may prescribe, giving such pertinent data as can be made available concerning the ownership and control of aircraft registered in that State and habitually engaged in international air navigation. The data thus obtained by the International Civil Aviation Organization shall be made available by it on request to the other contracting States.
Chapter IV - Measures to facilitate air navigation
Article 22 - Facilitation of formalities
Each contracting State agrees to adopt all practicable measures, through the issuance of special regulations or otherwise, to facilitate and expedite navigation by aircraft between the territories of contracting States, and to prevent unnecessary delays to aircraft, crews, passengers and cargo, especially in the administration of the laws relating to immigration, quarantine, customs and clearance.
Article 23 - Customs and immigration procedures
Each contracting State undertakes, so far as it may find practicable, to establish customs and immigration procedures affecting international air navigation in accordance with the practices which may be established or recommended from time to time, pursuant to this Convention. Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as preventing the establishment of customs-free airports.
Article 24 - Customs duty
(a) Aircraft on a flight to, from, or across the territory of another contracting State shall be admitted temporarily free of duty, subject to the customs regulations of the State. Fuel, lubricating oils, spare parts, regular equipment and aircraft stores on board an aircraft of a contracting State, on arrival in the territory of another contracting State and retained on board on leaving the territory of that State shall be exempt from customs duty, inspection fees or similar national or local duties and charges. This exemption shall not apply to any quantities or articles unloaded, except in accordance with the customs regulations of the State, which may require that they shall be kept under customs supervision.
(b) Spare parts and equipment imported into the territory of a contracting State for incorporation in or use on an aircraft of another contracting State engaged in international air navigation shall be admitted free of customs duty, subject to compliance with the regulations of the State concerned, which may provide that the articles shall be kept under customs supervision and control.
Article 25 - Aircraft in distress
Each contracting State undertakes to provide such measures of assistance to aircraft in distress in its territory as it may find practicable, and to permit, subject to control by its own authorities, the owners of the aircraft or authorities of the State in which the aircraft is registered to provide such measures of assistance as may be necessitated by the circumstances. Each contracting State, when undertaking search for missing aircraft, will collaborate in coordinated measures which may be recommended from time to time pursuant to this Convention.
Article 26 - Investigation of accidents
In the event of an accident to an aircraft of a contracting State occurring in the territory of another contracting State, and involving death or serious injury, or indicating serious technical defect in the aircraft or air navigation facilities, the State in which the accident occurs will institute an inquiry into the circumstances of the accident, in accordance, so far as its laws permit, with the procedure which may be recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization. The State in which the aircraft is registered shall be given the opportunity to appoint observers to be present at the inquiry and the State holding the inquiry shall communicate the report and findings in the matter to that State.
Article 27 - Exemption from seizure on patent claims
(a) While engaged in international air navigation, any authorized entry of aircraft of a contracting State into the territory of another contracting State or authorized transit across the territory of such State with or without landings shall not entail any seizure or detention of the aircraft or any claim against the owner or operator thereof or any other interference therewith by or on behalf of such State or any person therein, on the ground that the construction, mechanism, parts, accessories or operation of the aircraft is an infringement of any patent, design, or model duly granted or registered in the State whose territory is entered by the aircraft, it being agreed that no deposit of security in connection with the foregoing exemption from seizure or detention of the aircraft shall in any case be required in the State entered by such aircraft.
(b) The provisions of paragraph (a) of this Article shall also be applicable to the storage of spare parts and spare equipment for the aircraft and the right to use and install the same in the repair of an aircraft of a contracting State in the territory of any other contracting State, provided that any patented part or equipment so stored shall not be sold or distributed internally in or exported commercially from the contracting State entered by the aircraft.
(c) The benefits of this Article shall apply only to such States, parties to this Convention, as either (1) are parties to the International Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property and to any amendments thereof; or (2) have enacted patent laws which recognize and give adequate protection to inventions made by the nationals of the other States parties to this Convention.
Article 28 - Air navigation facilities and standard systems
Each contracting State undertakes, so far as it may find practicable, to:
(a) Provide, in its territory, airports, radio services, meteorological services and other air navigation facilities to facilitate international air navigation, in accordance with the standards and practices recommended or established from time to time, pursuant to this Convention;
(b) Adopt and put into operation the appropriate standard systems of communications procedure, codes, markings, signals, lighting and other operational practices and rules which may be recommended or established from time to time, pursuant to this Convention;
(c) Collaborate in international measures to secure the publication of aeronautical maps and charts in accordance with standards which may be recommended or established from time to time, pursuant to this Convention.
Chapter V - Conditions to be fulfilled with respect to aircraft
Article 29 - Documents carried in aircraft
Every aircraft of a contracting State, engaged in international navigation, shall carry the following documents in conformity with the conditions prescribed in this Convention:
(a) Its certificate of registration;
(b) Its certificate of airworthiness;
(c) The appropriate licenses for each member of the crew;
(d) Its journey log book;
(e) If it is equipped with radio apparatus, the aircraft radio station license;
(f) If it carries passengers, a list of their names and places of embarkation and destination;
(g) If it carries cargo, a manifest and detailed declarations of the cargo.
Article 30 - Aircraft radio equipment
(a) Aircraft of each contracting State may, in or over the territory of other contracting States, carry radio transmitting apparatus only if a license to install and operate such apparatus has been issued by the appropriate authorities of the State in which the aircraft is registered. The use of radio transmitting apparatus in the territory of the contracting State whose territory is flown over shall be in accordance with the regulations prescribed by that State.
(b) Radio transmitting apparatus may be used only by members of the flight crew who are provided with a special license for the purpose, issued by the appropriate authorities of the State in which the aircraft is registered.
Article 31 - Certificates of airworthiness
Every aircraft engaged in international navigation shall be provided with a certificate of airworthiness issued or rendered valid by the State in which it is registered.
Article 32 - Licenses of personnel
(a) The pilot of every aircraft and the other members of the operating crew of every aircraft engaged in international navigation shall be provided with certificates of competency and licenses issued or rendered valid by the State in which the aircraft is registered.
(b) Each contracting State reserves the right to refuse to recognize, for the purpose of flight above its own territory, certificates of competency and licenses granted to any of its nationals by another contracting State.
Article 33 - Recognition of certificates and licenses
Certificates of airworthiness and certificates of competency and licenses issued or rendered valid by the contracting State in which the aircraft is registered, shall be recognized as valid by the other contracting States, provided that the requirements under which such certificates or licenses were issued or rendered valid are equal to or above the minimum standards which may be established from time to time pursuant to this Convention.
Article 34 - Journey log books
There shall be maintained in respect of every aircraft engaged in international navigation a journey log book in which shall be entered particulars of the aircraft, its crew and of each journey, in such form as may be prescribed from time to time pursuant to this Convention.
Article 35 - Cargo restrictions
(a) No munitions of war or implements of war may be carried in or above the territory of a State in aircraft engaged in international navigation, except by permission of such State. Each State shall determine by regulations what constitutes munitions of war or implements of war for the purposes of this Article, giving due consideration, for the purposes of uniformity, to such recommendations as the International Civil Aviation Organization may from time to time make.
(b) Each contracting State reserves the right, for reasons of public order and safety, to regulate or prohibit the carriage in or above its territory of articles other than those enumerated in paragraph (a): provided that no distinction is made in this respect between its national aircraft engaged in international navigation and the aircraft of the other States so engaged; and provided further that no restriction shall be imposed which may interfere with the carriage and use on aircraft of apparatus necessary for the operation or navigation of the aircraft or the safety of the personnel or passengers.
Article 36 - Photographic apparatus
Each contracting State may prohibit or regulate the use of photographic apparatus in aircraft over its territory.
Chapter VI - International standards and recommended practices
Article 37 - Adoption of international standards and procedures
Each contracting State undertakes to collaborate in securing the highest practicable degree of uniformity in regulations, standards, procedures, and organization in relation to aircraft, personnel, airways and auxiliary services in all matters in which such uniformity will facilitate and improve air navigation.
To this end the International Civil Aviation Organization shall adopt and amend from time to time, as may be necessary, international standards and recommended practices and procedures dealing with:
(a) Communications systems and air navigation aids, including ground marking;
(b) Characteristics of airports and landing areas;
(c) Rules of the air and air traffic control practices;
(d) Licensing of operating and mechanical personnel;
(e) Airworthiness of aircraft;
(f) Registration and identification of aircraft;
(g) Collection and exchange of meteorological information;
(h) Log books;
(i) Aeronautical maps and charts;
(j) Customs and immigration procedures;
(k) Aircraft in distress and investigation of accidents;
and such other matters concerned with the safety, regularity, and efficiency of air navigation as may from time to time appear appropriate.
Article 38 - Departures from international standards and procedures
Any State which finds it impracticable to comply in all respects with any such international standard or procedure, or to bring its own regulations or practices into full accord with any international standard or procedure after amendment of the latter, or which deems it necessary to adopt regulations or practices differing in any particular respect from those established by an international standard, shall give immediate notification to the International Civil Aviation Organization of the differences between its own practice and that established by the international standard. In the case of amendments to international standards, any State which does not make the appropriate amendments to its own regulations or practices shall give notice to the Council within sixty days of the adoption of the amendment to the international standard, or indicate the action which it proposes to take. In any such case, the Council shall make immediate notification to all other states of the difference which exists between one or more features of an international standard and the corresponding national practice of that State.
Article 39 - Endorsement of certificates and licenses
(a) Any aircraft or part thereof with respect to which there exists an international standard of airworthiness or performance, and which failed in any respect to satisfy that standard at the time of its certification, shall have endorsed on or attached to its airworthiness certificate a complete enumeration of the details in respect of which it so failed.
(b) Any person holding a license who does not satisfy in full the conditions laid down in the international standard relating to the class of license or certificate which he holds shall have endorsed on or attached to his license a complete enumeration of the particulars in which he does not satisfy such conditions.
Article 40 - Validity of endorsed certificates and licenses
No aircraft or personnel having certificates or licenses so endorsed shall participate in international navigation, except with the permission of the State or States whose territory is entered. The registration or use of any such aircraft, or of any certificated aircraft part, in any State other than that in which it was originally certificated shall be at the discretion of the State into which the aircraft or part is imported.
Article 41 - Recognition of existing standards of airworthiness
The provisions of this Chapter shall not apply to aircraft and aircraft equipment of types of which the prototype is submitted to the appropriate national authorities for certification prior to a date three years after the date of adoption of an international standard of airworthiness for such equipment.
Article 42 - Recognition of existing standards of competency of personnel
The provisions of this Chapter shall not apply to personnel whose licenses are originally issued prior to a date one year after initial adoption of an international standard of qualification for such personnel; but they shall in any case apply to all personnel whose licenses remain valid five years after the date of adoption of such standard.
Part II - The International Civil Aviation Organization
Chapter VII - The Organization
Article 43 - Name and composition
An organization to be named the international Civil Aviation Organization is formed by the Convention. it is made up of an Assembly, a Council, and such other bodies as may be necessary.
Article 44 - Objectives
The aims and objectives of the Organization are to develop the principles and techniques of international air navigation and to foster the planning and development of international air transport so as to:
(a) Insure the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation throughout the world;
(b) Encourage the arts of aircraft design and operation for peaceful purposes;
(c) Encourage the development of airways, airports, and air navigation facilities for international civil aviation;
(d) Meet the needs of the peoples of the world for safe, regular, efficient and economical air transport;
(e) Prevent economic waste caused by unreasonable competition;
(f) Insure that the rights of contracting States are fully respected and that every contracting State has a fair opportunity to operate international airlines;
(g) Avoid discrimination between contracting States;
(h) Promote safety of flight in international air navigation;
(i) Promote generally the development of all aspects of international civil aeronautics.
Article 45 - Permanent seat
The permanent seat of the Organization shall be at such place as shall be determined at the final meeting of the Interim Assembly of the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization set up by the Interim Agreement on International Civil Aviation signed at Chicago on December 7, 1944. The seat may be temporarily transferred elsewhere by decision of the Council.
Article 46 - First meeting of Assembly
The first meeting of the Assembly shall be summoned by the Interim Council of the above-mentioned Provisional Organization as soon as the Convention has come into force, to meet at a time and place to be decided by the Interim Council.
Article 47 - Legal capacity
The Organization shall enjoy in the territory of each contracting State such legal capacity as may be necessary for the performance of its functions. Full juridical personality shall be granted wherever compatible with the constitution and laws of the State concerned.
Chapter VIII - The Assembly
Article 48 - Meetings of Assembly and voting
(a) The Assembly shall meet annually and shall be convened by the Council at a suitable time and place Extraordinary meetings of the Assembly may be held at any time upon the call of the Council or at the request of any ten contracting States addressed to the Secretary General.
(b) All contracting States shall have an equal right to be represented at the meetings of the Assembly and each contracting State shall be entitled to one vote. Delegates representing contracting States may be assisted by technical advisers who may participate in the meetings but shall have no vote.
(c) A majority of the contracting States is required to constitute a quorum for the meetings of the Assembly. Unless otherwise provided in this Convention, decisions of the Assembly shall be taken by a majority of the votes cast.
Article 49 - Powers and duties of Assembly
The powers and duties of the Assembly shall be to:
(a) Elect at each meeting its President and other officers;
(b) Elect the contracting States to be represented on the Council, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter IX;
(c) Examine and take appropriate action on the reports of the Council and decide on any matter referred to it by the Council;
(d) Determine its own rules of procedure and establish such subsidiary commissions as it may consider to be necessary or desirable;
(e) Vote an annual budget and determine the financial arrangements of the Organization, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XII;
(f) Review expenditures and approve the accounts of the Organization;
(g) Refer, at its discretion, to the Council, to subsidiary commissions, or to any other body any matter within its sphere of action;
(h) Delegate to the Council the powers and authority necessary or desirable for the discharge of the duties of the Organization and revoke or modify the delegations of authority at any time;
(i) Carry out the appropriate provisions of Chapter XIII;
(j) Consider proposals for the modification or amendment of the provisions of this Convention and, if it approves of the proposals, recommend them to the contracting States in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XXI;
(k) Deal with any matter within the sphere of action of the Organization not specifically assigned to the Council.
Chapter IX - The Council
Article 50 - Composition and election of Council
(a) The Council shall be a permanent body responsible to the Assembly. It shall be composed of twenty-one contracting States elected by the Assembly. An election shall be held at the first meeting of the Assembly and thereafter every three years, and the members of the Council so elected shall hold office until the next following election.
(b) In electing the members of tile Council, the Assembly shall give adequate representation to (1) the States of chief importance in air transport; (2) the States not otherwise included which make the largest contribution to the provision of facilities for international civil air navigation; and (3) the States not otherwise included whose designation will insure that all the major geographic areas of the world are represented on tile Council. Any vacancy on the Council shall be filled by the Assembly as soon as possible; any contracting State so elected to the Council shall hold office for the unexpired portion of its predecessor's term of office.
(c) No representative of a contracting State on the Council shall be actively associated with the operation of an international air service or financially interested in such a service.
Article 51 - President of Council
The Council shall elect its President for a term of three years. He may be reelected. He shall have no vote. The Council shall elect from among its members one or more Vice Presidents who shall retain their right to vote when serving as acting President. The President need not be selected from among the representatives of the members of the Council but, if a representative is elected, his seat shall be deemed vacant and it shall be filled by the State which he represented. The duties of the President shall be to:
(a) Convene meetings of the Council, the Air Transport Committee, and the Air Navigation Commission;
(b) Serve as representative of the Council; and
(c) Carry out on behalf of the Council the functions which the Council assigns to him.
Article 52 - Voting in Council
Decisions by the Council shall require approval by a majority of its members. The Council may delegate authority with respect to any particular matter to a committee of its members. Decisions of any committee of the Council may be appealed to the Council by any interested contracting State,
Article 53 - Participation without a vote
Any contracting State may participate, without a vote, in the consideration by the Council and by its committees and commissions of any question which especially affects its interests. No member of the Council shall vote in the consideration by the Council of a dispute to which it is a party.
Article 54 - Mandatory functions of Council
The Council shall:
(a) Submit annual reports to the Assembly;
(b) Carry out the directions of the Assembly and discharge the duties and obligations which are laid on it by this Convention;
(c) Determine its organization and rules of procedure;
(d) Appoint and define the duties of an Air Transport Committee, which shall be chosen from among the representatives of the members of the Council, and which shall be responsible to it;
(e) Establish an Air Navigation Commission, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter X;
(f) Administer the finances of the Organization in accordance with the provisions of Chapters XII and XV;
(g) Determine the emoluments of the President of the Council;
(h) Appoint a chief executive officer who shall be called the Secretary General, and make provision for the appointment of such other personnel as may be necessary, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XI;
(i) Request, collect, examine and publish information relating to the advancement of air navigation and the operation of international air services, including information about the costs of operation and particulars of subsidies paid to airlines from public funds;
(j) Report to contracting States any infraction of this Convention, as well as any failure to carry out recommendations or determinations of the Council;
(k) Report to the Assembly any infraction of this Convention where a contracting State has failed to take appropriate action within a reasonable time after notice of the infraction;
(l) Adopt, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter VI of this Convention, international standards and recommended practices; for convenience, designate them as Annexes to this Convention; and notify all contracting States of the action taken;
(m) Consider recommendations of the Air Navigation Commission for amendment of the Annexes and take action in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XX;
(n) Consider any matter relating to the Convention which any contracting State refers to it.
Article 55 - Permissive functions of Council
The Council may:
(a) Where appropriate and as experience may show to be desirable, create subordinate air transport commissions on a regional or other basis and define
groups of states or airlines with or through which it may deal to facilitate the carrying out of the aims of this Convention;
(b) Delegate to the Air Navigation Commission duties additional to those set forth in the Convention and revoke or modify such delegations of authority at any time;
(c) Conduct research into all aspects of air transport and air navigation which are of international importance, communicate the results of its research to the contracting States, and facilitate the exchange of information between contracting States on air transport and air navigation matters;
(d) Study any matters affecting the organization and operation of international air transport, including the international ownership and operation of international air services on trunk routes, and submit to the Assembly plans in relation thereto;
(e) Investigate, at the request of any contracting State, any situation which may appear to present avoidable obstacles to the development of international air navigation; and, after such investigation, issue such reports as may appear to it desirable.
Chapter X - The Air Navigation Commission
Article 56 - Nomination and appointment of Commission
The Air Navigation Commission shall be composed of twelve members appointed by the Council from among persons nominated by contracting States. These persons shall have suitable qualifications and experience in the science and practice of aeronautics. The Council shall request all contracting States to submit nominations. The President of the Air Navigation Commission shall be appointed by the Council.
Article 57 - Duties of Commission
The Air Navigation Commission shall:
(a) Consider, and recommend to the Council for adoption, modifications of the Annexes to this Convention;
(b) Establish technical subcommissions on which any contracting State may be represented, if it so desires;
(c) Advise the Council concerning the collection and communication to the contracting States of all information which it considers necessary and useful for the advancement of air navigation.
Chapter XI - Personnel
Article 58 - Appointment of personnel
Subject to any rules laid down by the Assembly and to the provisions of this Convention, the Council shall determine the method of appointment and of termination of appointment, the training, and the salaries, allowances, and conditions of service of the Secretary General and other personnel of the Organization, and may employ or make use of the services of nationals of any contracting State.
Article 59 - International character of personnel
The President of the Council, the Secretary General, and other personnel shall not seek or receive instructions in regard to the discharge of their responsibilities from any authority external to the Organization. Each contracting State undertakes fully to respect the international character of the responsibilities of the personnel and not to seek to influence any of its nationals in the discharge of their responsibilities.
Article 60 - Immunities and privileges of personnel
Each contracting State undertakes, so far as possible under its constitutional procedure, to accord to the President of the Council, the Secretary General, and the other personnel of the Organization, the immunities and privileges which are accorded to corresponding personnel of other public international organizations. If a general international agreement on the immunities and privileges of international civil servants is arrived at, the immunities and privileges accorded to the President, the Secretary General, and the other personnel of the Organization shall be the immunities and privileges accorded under that general international agreement.
Chapter XII - Finance
Article 61 - Budget and apportionment of expenses
The Council shall submit to the Assembly an annual budget, annual statements of accounts and estimates of all receipts and expenditures. The Assembly shall vote the budget with whatever modification it sees fit to prescribe, and, with the exception of assessments under Chapter XV to States consenting thereto, shall apportion the expenses of the Organization among the contracting States on the basis which it shall from time to time determine.
Article 62 - Suspension of voting power
The Assembly may suspend the voting power in the Assembly and in the Council of any contracting State that fails to discharge within a reasonable period its financial obligations to the Organization.
Article 63 - Expenses of delegations and other representatives
Each contracting State shall bear the expenses of its own delegation to the Assembly and the remuneration, travel, and other expenses of any person whom it appoints to serve on the Council, and of its nominees or representatives on any subsidiary committees or commissions of the Organization.
Chapter XIII - Other international arrangements
Article 64 - Security arrangements
The Organization may, with respect to air matters within its competence directly affecting world security, by vote of the Assembly enter into appropriate arrangements with any general organization set up by the nations of the world to preserve peace.
Article 65 - Arrangements with other international bodies
The Council, on behalf of the Organization, may enter into agreements with ot4er international bodies for the maintenance of common services and for common arrangements concerning personnel and, with the approval of the Assembly, may enter into such other arrangements as may facilitate the work of the Organization.
Article 66 - Functions relating to other agreements
(a) The Organization shall also carry out the functions placed upon it by the International Air Services Transit Agreement and by the International Air Transport Agreement drawn up at Chicago on December 7, 1944, in accordance with the terms and conditions therein set forth.
(b) Members of the Assembly and the Council who have not accepted the International Air Services Transit Agreement of the International Air Transport Agreement drawn up at Chicago on December 7, 1944 shall not have the right to vote on any questions referred to the Assembly or Council under the provisions of the relevant Agreement.
Part III - International air transport
Chapter XIV - Information and reports
Article 67 - File reports with Council
Each contracting State undertakes that its international airlines shall, in accordance with requirements laid down by the Council, file with the Council traffic reports, cost statistics and financial statements showing among other things all receipts and the sources thereof.
Chapter XV - Airports and other air navigation facilities
Article 68 - Designation of routes and airports
Each contracting State may, subject to the provisions of this Convention, designate the route to be followed within its territory by any international air service and the airports which any such service may use.
Article 69 - Improvement of air navigation facilities
If the Council is of the opinion that the airports or other air navigation facilities, including radio and meteorological services, of a contracting State are not reasonably adequate for the safe, regular, efficient, and economical operation of international air services, present or contemplated, the Council shall consult with the State directly concerned, and other States affected, with a view to finding means by which the situation may be remedied, and may make recommendations for that purpose. No contracting State shall be guilty of an infraction of this Convention if it fails to carry out these recommendations.
Article 70 - Financing of air navigation facilities
A contracting State, in the circumstances arising under the provisions of Article 69, may conclude an arrangement with the Council for giving effect to such recommendations. The State may elect to bear all of the costs involved in any such arrangement. If the State does not so elect, the Council may agree, at the request of the State, to provide for all or a portion of the costs.
Article 71 - Provision and maintenance of facilities by Council
If a contracting State so requests, the Council may agree to provide, man, maintain, and administer any or all of the airports and other air navigation facilities including radio and meteorological services, required in its territory for the safe, regular, efficient and economical operation of the international air services of the other contracting States, and may specify just and reasonable charges for the use of the facilities provided.
Article 72 - Acquisition or use of land
Where land is needed for facilities financed in whole or in part by the Council at the request of a contracting State, that State shall either provide the land itself, retaining title if it wishes, or facilitate the use of the land by the Council on just and reasonable terms and in accordance with the laws of the State concerned.
Article 73 - Expenditure and assessment of funds
Within the limit of the funds which may be made available to it by the Assembly under Chapter XII, the Council may make current expenditures for the purposes of this Chapter from the general funds of the organization. The Council shall assess the capital funds required for the purposes of this Chapter in previously agreed proportions over a reasonable period of time to the contracting States consenting thereto whose airlines use the facilities. The Council may also assess to States that consent any working funds that are required.
Article 74 - Technical assistance and utilization of revenues
When the Council, at the request of a contracting State, advances funds or provides airports or other facilities in whole or in part, the arrangement may provide, with the consent of that State, for technical assistance in the supervision and operation of the airports and other facilities, and for the payment, from the revenues derived from the operation of the airports and other facilities, of the operating expenses of the airports and the other facilities, and of interest and amortization charges.
Article 75 - Taking over of facilities from Council
A contracting State may at any time discharge any obligation into which it has entered under Article 70, and take over airports and other facilities which the Council has provided in its territory pursuant to the provisions of Articles 71 and 72, by paying to the Council an amount which in the opinion of the Council is reasonable in the circumstances. If the State considers that the amount fixed by the Council is unreasonable it may appeal to the Assembly against the decision of the Council and the Assembly may confirm or amend the decision of the Council.
Article 76 - Return of funds
Funds obtained by the Council through reimbursement under Article 75 and from receipts of interest and amortization payments under Article 74 shall, in the case of advances originally financed by States under Article 73, be returned to the States which were originally assessed in the proportion of their assessments, as determined by the Council.
Chapter XVI - Joint operating organizations and pooled services
Article 77 - Joint operating organizations permitted
Nothing in this Convention shall prevent two or more contracting States from constituting joint air transport operating organizations or international operating agencies and from pooling their air services on any routes or in any regions, but such organizations or agencies and such pooled services shall be subject to all the provisions of this Convention, including those relating to the registration of agreements with the Council. The Council shall determine in what manner the provisions of this Convention relating to nationality of aircraft shall apply to aircraft operated by international operating agencies.
Article 78 - Function of Council
The Council may suggest to contracting States concerned that they form joint organizations to operate air services on any routes or in any regions.
Article 79 - Participation in operating organizations
A State may participate in joint operating organizations or in pooling arrangements, either through its government or through an airline company or companies designated by its government. The companies may, at the sole discretion of the State concerned, be state-owned or partly state-owned or privately owned.
Part IV - Final Provisions
Chapter XVII - Other aeronautical agreements and arrangements
Article 80 - Paris and Habana Conventions
Each contracting State undertakes, immediately upon the coming into force of this Convention, to give notice of denunciation of the Convention relating to the Regulation of Aerial Navigation signed at Paris on October 13, 1919 or the Convention on Commercial Aviation signed at Habana on February 20, 1928, if it is a party to either. As between contracting States, this Convention supersedes the Conventions of Paris and Habana previously referred to.
Article 81 - Registration of existing agreements
All aeronautical agreements which are in existence on the coming into force of this Convention, and which are between a contracting State and any other State or between an airline of a contracting State and any other State or the airline of any other State, shall be forthwith registered with the Council.
Article 82 - Abrogation of inconsistent arrangements
The contracting States accept this Convention as abrogating all obligations and understandings between them which are inconsistent with its terms, and undertake not to enter into any such obligations and understandings. A contracting State which, before becoming a member of the Organization has undertaken any obligations toward a non-contracting State or a national of a contracting State or of a non-contracting State inconsistent with the terms of this Convention, shall take immediate steps to procure its release from the obligations. If an airline of any contracting State has entered into any such inconsistent obligations, the State of which it is a national shall use its best efforts to secure their termination forth with and shall in any event cause them to be terminated as soon as such action can lawfully be taken after the coming into force of this Convention.
Article 83 - Registration of new arrangements
Subject to the provisions of the preceding Article, any contracting State may make arrangements not inconsistent with the provisions of this Convention. Any such arrangement shall be forthwith registered with the Council, which shall make it public as soon as possible.
Chapter XVIII - Disputes and default
Article 84 - Settlement of disputes
If any disagreement between two or more contracting States relating to the interpretation or application of this Convention and its Annexes cannot be settled by negotiation, it shall, on the application of any State concerned in the disagreement, be decided by the Council. No member of the Council shall vote in the consideration by the Council of any dispute to which it is a party. Any contracting State may, subject to Article 85, appeal from the decision of the Council to an ad hoc arbitral tribunal agreed upon with the other parties to the dispute or to the Permanent Court of International Justice. Any such appeal shall be notified to the Council within sixty days of receipt of notification of the decision of the Council.
Article 85 - Arbitration procedure
If any contracting State party to a dispute in which the decision of the Council is under appeal has not accepted the Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice and the contracting States parties to the dispute cannot agree on the choice of the arbitral tribunal, each of the contracting States parties to the dispute shall name a single arbitrator who shall name an umpire. If either contracting State party to the dispute fails to name an arbitrator within a period of three months from the date of the appeal, an arbitrator shall be named on behalf of that State by the President of the Council from a list of qualified and available persons maintained by the Council. If, within thirty days, the arbitrators cannot agree on an umpire, the President of the Council shall designate an umpire from the list previously referred to. The arbitrators and the umpire shall then jointly constitute an arbitral tribunal. Any arbitral tribunal established under this or the preceding Article shall settle its own procedure and give its decisions by majority vote, provided that the Council may determine procedural questions in the event of any delay which in the opinion of the Council is excessive.
Article 86 - Appeals
Unless the Council decides otherwise any decision by the Council on whether an international airline is operating in conformity with the provisions of this Convention shall remain in effect unless reversed on appeal. On any other matter, decisions of the Council shall, if appealed from, be suspended until the appeal is decided. The decisions of the Permanent Court of International Justice and of an arbitral tribunal shall be final and binding.
Article 87 - Penalty for non-conformity of airline
Each contracting State undertakes not to allow the operation of an airline of a contracting State through the airspace above its territory if the Council has decided that the airline concerned is not conforming to a final decision rendered in accordance with the previous Article.
Article 88 - Penalty for non-conformity by State
Tile Assembly shall suspend the voting power in the Assembly and in the Council of any contracting State that is found in default under the provisions of this Chapter.
Chapter XIX - War
Article 89 - War and emergency conditions
in case of war, the provisions of this Convention shall not affect the freedom of action of any of the contracting States affected, whether as belligerents or as neutrals. The same principle shall apply in the case of any contracting State which declares a state of national emergency and notifies the fact to the Council.
Chapter XX - Annexes
Article 90 - Adoption and amendment of Annexes
(a) The adoption by the Council of the Annexes described in Article 54, subparagraph (1), shall require the vote of two-thirds of the Council at a meeting called for that purpose and shall then be submitted by the Council to each contracting State. Any such Annex or any amendment of an Annex shall become effective within three months after its submission to the contracting States or at the end of such longer period of time as the Council may prescribe, unless in the meantime a majority of the contracting States register their disapproval with the Council.
(b) The Council shall immediately notify all contracting States of the Coming into force of any Annex or amendment thereto.
Chapter XXI - Ratifications, adherences, amendments, and denunciations
Article 91 - Ratification of Convention
(a) This Convention shall be subject to ratification by the signatory States. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America, which shall give notice of the date of the deposit to each of the signatory and adhering States.
(b) As soon as this Convention has been ratified or adhered to by twenty-six States it shall come into force between them on the thirtieth day after deposit of the twenty-sixth instrument. It shall come into force for each State ratifying thereafter on the thirtieth day after the deposit of its instrument of ratification.
(c) It shall be the duty of the Government of the United States of America to notify the government of each of the signatory and adhering States of the date on which this Convention comes into force.
Article 92 - Adherence to Convention
(a) This Convention shall be open for adherence by members of the United Nations and States associated with them, and States which remained neutral during the present world conflict.
(b) Adherence shall be effected by a notification addressed to the Government of the United States of America and shall take effect as from the thirtieth day from the receipt of the notification by the Government of the United States of America, which shall notify all the contracting States.
Article 93 - Admission of other States
States other than those provided for in Articles 91 and 92 (a) may, subject to approval by any general international organization set up by the nations of the world to preserve peace, be admitted to participation in this Convention by means of a four-fifths vote of the Assembly and on such conditions as the Assembly may prescribe: provided that in each case the assent of any State invaded or attacked during the present war by the State seeking admission shall be necessary.
Article 94 - Amendment of Convention
(a) Any proposed amendment to this Convention must be approved by a two-thirds vote of the Assembly and shall then come into force in respect of States which have ratified such amendment when ratified by the number of contracting States specified by the Assembly. The number so specified shall not be less than two-thirds of the total number of contracting States.
(b) If in its opinion the amendment is of such a nature as to justify this course, the Assembly in its resolution recommending adoption may provide that any State which has not ratified within a specified period after the amendment has come into force shall thereupon cease to be a member of the Organization and a party to the Convention.
Article 95 - Denunciation of Convention
(a) Any contracting State may give notice of denunciation of this Convention three years after its coming into effect by notification addressed to the Government of the United States of America,
which shall at once inform each of the contracting States.
(b) Denunciation shall take effect one year from the date of the receipt of the notification and shall operate only as regards the State effecting the denunciation.
Chapter XXII - Definitions
Article 96
For the purpose of this Convention the expression:
(a) "Air service" means any scheduled air service performed by aircraft for the public transport of passengers, mail or cargo.
(b) "International air service" means an air service which passes through the air space over the territory of more than one State.
(c) "Airline" means any air transport enterprise offering or operating an international air service.
(d) "Stop for non-traffic purposes" means a landing for any purpose other than taking on or discharging passengers, cargo or mail.
Signature of Convention
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned plenipotentiaries, having been duly authorized, sign this Convention on behalf of their respective governments on the dates appearing opposite their signatures.
DONE at Chicago the seventh day of December 1944, in the English language. A text drawn up in the English, French and Spanish languages, each of which shall be of equal authenticity, shall be open for signature at Washington, D.C. Both texts shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America, and certified copies shall be transmitted by that Government to the governments of all the States which may sign or adhere to this Convention.


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